Melanoma Biomarkers: Early Detection and Monitoring

Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is a rapidly growing health concern worldwide. According to the American Cancer Society, melanoma accounts for approximately 1% of all skin cancers but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Early detection and management of melanoma are crucial in improving outcomes in patients afflicted with this lethal disease. The development of biomarkers, which can monitor and detect melanoma at an early stage, has paved the way for improved diagnostic and treatment options.

What are Melanoma Biomarkers?

Melanoma biomarkers are tangible biological substances that indicate the presence of melanoma. Several types of biomarkers are available to monitor melanoma, ranging from genetic and proteomic biomarkers to circulating biomarkers. Genetic biomarkers determine the presence of specific mutations in melanoma cells and can help predict an individual’s risk of developing melanoma. Proteomic biomarkers, on the other hand, measure the levels of proteins present in melanoma cells. They are useful in diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and monitoring of melanoma.

Circulating biomarkers detect tumor cells or cell fragments that have entered the blood circulation. This type of melanoma biomarker is particularly useful as melanoma cells typically spread to other organs and tissues through the bloodstream. As cancer cells move into the bloodstream, they may release nucleic acids or proteins that can be detected in body fluids such as blood, urine, or sweat. Biomarkers found in these fluids can help detect melanoma early, determine its progression, or monitor its response to treatment.

Various melanoma biomarkers are currently under investigation, some of which have already been approved by the FDA. The FDA-approved melanoma biomarkers include S100, LDH, and BRAF mutations. BRAF V600E/K mutation is the most common mutation present in melanoma, accounting for approximately 50% of cases. Its detection helps predict the response of melanoma cells to BRAF-targeted therapy.

Research continues to identify and evaluate new melanoma biomarkers. One promising biomarker is miRNA, a small non-coding RNA that regulates gene expression. Changes in miRNA expression have been associated with melanoma progression and prognosis. Other potential melanoma biomarkers include circulating tumor cells, serum markers, cell-free DNA, and exosomes.


Melanoma biomarkers have revolutionized early detection, monitoring, and management of melanoma. As research advances, new biomarkers, and predictive tests for melanoma are emerging. Biomarkers provide an incredible opportunity to identify melanoma in its earliest stages when it’s most treatable. They also offer a non-invasive approach to monitor melanoma progression and response to therapy. As we continue to develop better biomarker tests, we can expect improved outcomes and a reduction in melanoma-related deaths.